Underground water is taken upwards using capillary action. For this, polymer films made up of polycarbonate having channels created by ion beam sputtering are used. Capillary action is possible through these channels. These tubes have to be placed at various places under the ground where water is available.
Capillary action is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
It occurs because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and solid surrounding surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and adhesive forces between the liquid and container act to lift the liquid.
Thereafter, vacuum pumps are connected to these capillary tubes to create suction and to distribute water in fields.
A vacuum's suction is caused by a difference in air pressure. An electric fan reduces the pressure inside the machine.
Suction is the flow of a fluid into a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. The pressure gradient between this region and the ambient pressure will propel matter toward the low pressure area.
These vacuum pumps are run using biogas plants for electricity generation. For this purpose, mini biogas plant can be used at an individual level whereas a community biogas plant can be used at community level.
Water is then distributed in fields with the help of emitters and sprinklers connected to the vacuum pumps through pipes.