In this era of industrialization and urban civilization INDIA is the country where the solar technology has proved the best. This project SOLAR POWER BASED WATER PUMP (SPBWP) is an aid to the SOLAR CIVILIZATION in INDIA and has been designed to attain maximum efficiency for irrigational purposes.
Does the solar pump challenges the existing diesel pumps?
Yes is the most preferable answer.
The designed solar water pump operates to satisfy the water requirement of the farmers in BIHAR. Applicable and efficient for both IRRIGATION and DOMESTIC PURPOSE.
Researchers say that sun and wind are the ultimate source of energy sources which can be widely harnessed. The International Energy Agency (IEA) claims that “The development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer term benefits. It will increase countries energy security through reliance on an indigenous , inexhaustible and mostly import independent resource, enhance sustainability ,reduce pollution , lower the cost of mitigating climate change and keep fossil fuel lower then otherwise.”
THIS WAS GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF USING SOLAR POWER INSTEAD OF USING CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES , NOW LETS HAVE A LOOK UPON THE SYSTEM THAT WOULD WORK UNDER SUN OBEYING THE RAYS FOR THE SYSTEM IS NAMED AS SOLAR WATER PUMP .
· Cost effective and can be operated with minimal knowledge.
· Eco-friendly and cost effective.
· More longevity and hygiene.
· Highly durable and rigid construction.
· Dual supply operation(solar and grid connection).
· Ideal for remote locations.
· Low maintenance Easy to dismantle & repair.
· 16000-24000lph discharge rate with total dynamic head range of 5-14 metre.
· Suction lift up to 7.5 metre.
· Manually operated/Embedded system to make it automatic.
· Single phase 230 volt inverter run.
· Energy storage device equipped.
· An aid to the severe power cutoff areas.
· Applicabe for the states of BIHAR, UTTAR PRADESH, ARUNANCHAL PRADESH, ANDHRA PRADESH and HARYANA.
My idea is to implement a solar powered pump. That could be fixed in a small movable carriage/trolley and the pump that is needed can be of 1- HP/0.75HP/0.5 HP capable of discharging more than 22000 litres of water per hour (lph) or 2308.70 gallons of water per hour at total head range of 5-14 metres.
So, the motor to be powered requires AC supply based on its type. AC is the right option and with additional advantage for rural areas. So, there should be constant supply to the motor to gain maximum efficiency.
To receive maximum and constant supply a (Maximum Power Point Tracking) MPPT charger should be used to capture maximum power from the solar panels during a day to charge the batteries.
The pump can be of 1PH, 220V AC / 3PH, 415 v based on the pump type the inverter is to be made or purchased. Now days, they are readily available in the market with a good price value.
Here, the AC supply for the motor is supplied from the inverter which takes in DC from the batteries charged by the solar panels and converts it into required AC.
Further it can be modified to an advance level by completely automatizing it by EMBEDDED SYSTEM.
SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEM GENERALLY COMPRISES OF FOLLOWING PARTS:-
Solar water pump, solar modules, Inverter, Batteries, Charge controller, movable Trolley and Solar panels mounting Rack.
v Before I start explaining about the operation, let me make it clear that electronics, electrical, mechanical devices are not 100% efficient but they lie in between 75%-95%. So, the values of the parts to be chosen for implementing should exceed 10-15% than the values obtained by calculation below.
OPERATION OF THE SOLAR WATER PUMP
Pump is the most challenging part of the design it reflects the efficiency and application. Operates best at total head of 5metres-14 metres.
Although a small irrigation system based on solar power that we have come up with pumps less water as compared to a diesel engine its efficiency never fails being NONE POLLUTING and self-owned.
The pump that operates is a SURFACE CENTRIFUGAL AC pump (0.5Hp/0.75hp/1.0hp). We can also use SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS with equivalent rating as the centrifugal pump.
· Submersible pumps are the best to be implemented in a group.
· The discharge rate of submersible pump is less as compared to the SURFACE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP within the range of 1HP, although the TDH of the submersible is very high as compared to the centrifugal pumps
The motor can supply constant water to the field for irrigation purpose without any fail to satisfy the crop demands seasonally.
OPERATION OF SOLAR MODULES
DC supply comes from the photo voltaic modules placed in array (array is the group of modules arranged to produce desired watt) that is directly fed into the battery using a voltage-current controller called MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER (MPPT) device (12v/24v/36v/48v), which decides the amount of voltage and current to be fed into the battery for efficient charging.
The DC supply fed into the inverter can be taken directly from the solar panels without the use of batteries by introducing a new device called LINEAR CURRENT BOOSTERS (LCB).
OPERATION OF INVERTERS
Now, comes the conversion part where DC is converted using a oscillator circuit that is present inside the inverter to 50 Hz, 220v 1-ph AC (or) 50 Hz, 415v 3-ph AC
· 50 Hz, 220 v & 50 Hz, 415v are the standard voltages of INDIA.
· Inverter with AC surge of 200-300% of its power rating best suits our design.
Once, AC is produced we need not to worry about anything (our produced AC power range is between 800 watt-1500 watt). Now the supply is connected to the electric pump set (with or without starting panel) but a 10A miniature circuit breaker (MCB) must be placed in between the connection.
ü We know 1 HP is 746 /750 watt but still we require a 1200-1500 watt inverter because starting torque of the pump requires a1200-1400 watt.
ü Or the capacitor can be further modified to reduce the starting power by 5-7%.
There should be constant power supply in order to gain maximum efficiency Of the SOLAR PUMP SET.
Researchers have proved that the best time for operation of solar panels in India is between 9AM-3PM throughout the year and 8:30AM to 3:30PM in summer, which covers almost 6 and 7 hours respectively.
OPERATION OF BATTERIES
Batteries serve as the fuel for the inverter to run efficiently, adding some more value to the system other then only pumping. They are charged with the help of charge controllers to reduce the time of charging and enhance the span of batteries. Charge controllers capture the maximum current produced by the solar panel to charge batteries.
· With batteries, the operation of motor go on smoothly without being effected during inadequate sunrays but
· Without batteries the motor may stop/halt in inadequate sunrays.
· Battery bank system will require less no. of PV modules. Whereas, the non-battery bank system requires more no. of modules.
· Battery bank systems can also become a part of home electricity system.
OPERATION OF CHARGE CONTROLLER
Controller is the device that acts as the bridge in between the solar panels and the Batteries that takes in maximum current and voltage from solar panels even in the worst conditions these controllers called as MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKERS (MPPT) increase the charging efficiency by 15% .
LINEAR CURRENT BOOSTERS (LCB) often called as boosters they are best used for constant current flow systems. Such as DC/AC motors powered by solar.
OPERATION MOVABLE TROLLEY
Very commonly used to displace things from one place to another fixed with pulleys and can be pulled.
Placing the water pump on trolley can be carried to the desired place comfortably.
OPERATION OF SOLAR PANELS MOUNTING RACK
These are the holding stands where the solar panels can be mounted while using and detached when not in use for safe transfer from one place to another. They can be adjusted to desired angle for maximum reception of sunlight.
Operation is incomplete without proper analysis here comes the simple mathematics to give clear idea of the developing the entire system in simple and logical way:-
According to the survey the by irrigation and agro department in BIHAR:-
Ø Water table is 5m-7m below the ground and at extreme case it is 10-12meters.
Ø Rice, wheat and maize are the highest grown crops of the state.
Ø Rice requires (150-200mm), wheat requires (100-350mm) of water for proper growth.
Ø 80 percent of the farmers in state are having 0.75 hectares of land.
1 hectare=2.47105381 acres
Ø As stated by GREENPEACE design challenge our pump should water 1 hectare of land which is 2.47105381 acres.
Ø Let us have a look to the water requirement of 0.75 hectares and 1 hectares of land.
VOLUME is the specific word used to calculate the water requirement of land generally expressed in gallons, acre-inch(ac-in) and acre-feet(ac-ft.).
An acre-inch is the volume of water that would be required to cover an area of 1 acre to a depth of 1 inch.
Volume= area*inch (area in acres, depth in inch, acre-inch)
§ 1acre-inch of land requires 27,154 gallons of water.
§ 1 gallon=3.78 liters
§ 1 cubic meter =1000 liters
§ 27,154 gallons= 1,02,642 liters =102.8 cubic meters
§ 1 Acre land= 27,154 gallon water required
Let the land to be cultivated is of 1 hectare and the crop to be planted is RICE:-
1 hectare=2.47105381 acres
The water management is the most vital part of a good farmer so; a farmer’s from BIHAR should have a good knowledge over this, which has made them one of leading rice and wheat producers in INDIA.
Procedure for calculation:-
1 acre of land to the depth of 1 inch requires 27,154 gallons of water.
1 acre of land to the depth of 4 inch (100 mm) will require 1, 08,616 gal. Of water
27154*4 = 1, 08,616 gal.
1, 08,616* 3.78=4, 10,568.48 litres
Water requirement for rice cultivation
Gallons of water required=27154*(area in acre)*(depth in inch)
1.85 acre, 6 inch (150 mm)
Gal. of water reqd.=27154 * 1.85 * 6
=301409*3.78= 11, 39,327.532 litres
2.47 acre, 8 inch (200 mm)
Gal. of water reqd.=27154*2.471*8
(1.85 acres is equivalent to the land holding of a farmers in BIHAR)
Water requirement for wheat cultivation
The wheat holds the same portion but it requires less management of water as compared to the rice.
· Almost 50% of water management is reduced in the case of wheat cultivation.
1.85 acre, 4 inch (150 mm)
Gal. of water reqd.=27154 * 1.85 * 4
=200939.6 *3.78= 759551.688 litres
2.47 acre, 14 inch (350 mm)
Gal. of water reqd.=27154*2.471*14
As per above calculation it is clear that the pump should be efficient enough to pump at least 50 % of the land each day to a depth of 4 inch.
CALCULATION FOR MOTOR SELECTION:-
Keeping the budget within 1 lakh I prefer 1 HP pump to be the suitable one .
Discharge rate of a given pump litre per hour (LPH)= 60*discharge rate of a pump in(LPM)
Suppose 500 is the LPM discharge of a 1 HP pump then,
1 hour= 400*60
= 24000 ltrs/hr
Since we running through solar power we should not expect for the whole day to run but 6-7 hours is only efficient.
24000*7 = 1, 68,000 ltrs per day.
Next comes the TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD (TDH):-
Water table in BIHAR lies in between 5-9mtrs and in worst cases it reaches 12mtrs.
· The motor to be selected should have good discharge rate at the 12 m dynamic head.
· Good power factor.
· At least it should compete with the engine pumps being provided by the BLOCK AUTHORITIES in BIHAR.
should have low start surge.
Finally we a chose a 1 HP motor having discharge rate of 400-500 Lpm with total head of 14metres .
· Choosing an AC pump is advantageous for the areas with GRID CONNECTIONS.
CALCULATION FOR INVERTER SELECTION:-
Inverter is not a generator but it takes DC voltage as input from the battery to change it to required AC.
1 HP motor =746 watts. Approximately 750 watt. (Continuous running)
During start the the motor consumes almost twice its power rating (i.e. 746*2=1492 watts)
No electric motors are 100% efficient so, including 25% inefficiency would result in better selection of the Inverter.
25% of 750 watt = 750+187.5=937.5 watt
Although inverters are more efficient than pumps reduce the efficiency by 10%
8% of 1500 = 1500-120 = 1380 watts
· The starting power is called peak power or surge power.
Based on this I have selected the inverter of 1500 VA. It can be operated
Directly without battery but using battery the system becomes more efficient with additional advantages.
· At spare times it can be used to power home appliances.
· It can be assembled as micro grid for home.
· Once motor starts small loads such as mobile chargers, LCD TV’s can be connected (25 watt).
CALCULATION FOR SELECTING BATTERY:-
Batteries connected here gives a constant and stable power supply to the inverter without indicating low power indicator of the inverter. Making the inverter run smoothly without any interruption.
They are rated in AMP-HOUR.
i.e. 150(AH) battery is able to supply 150 amps of current for 1 hour.
Charging the same battery with solar panels would take almost 10 hours by supplying 15 Amps of current continuously (150/15= 10 hours )
Battery backup = amp-hour * battery voltage/power output
= 150*24/1500 =2:30 hours in full load
=5 hours in half load
· Here is the brief how a battery charges and discharges.
Two 150AH battery (150+150=300) AH
Total (v*I) =300*12=3600wh
Charging through a PV module, an array of 200 watt would take
Similarly for 400 watt: (3600/400) =9hrs
Similarly for 500 watt: (3600/500) =7.2hrs
Similarly for 600 watt: (3600/600) =6hrs
I have designed a circuit that can deliver 100A current and 24 V to the inverter continuously without utilizing the complete BATTERY CHARGE(i.e.100AH from a 150AH Battery which reduces the time of charging) it also protects the BATTERY from complete discharge and help the charge controller in charging efficiently.
This circuit will act as a catalyst for the life span of the BATTERY for simultaneosly charging and powering the inverter.
CALCULATION FOR CHOOSING SOLAR PANELS
Solar Panels are choosen as per the SOLAR INSOLATION in that particular area . BIHAR gets a good number of sunny days in a year to harvest SOLAR ENERGY.
Solar panels range from 5 watt – 300 watt efficiently designed to satisfy the power needs.
They are very costly in INDIA as compared to other countries as provided by the SOLAR NEWS.
Solar panels without the use of Batteries remains inefficient require almost 1200-3000watts to power the inverter making the size bulky.
1300 watt= 100 watt solar * 13 panels
A 100 watt solar panel generally produces 5.8 Amp of current during sunny a day and reduces to half during cloudy days (i.e. 2.9 Amps).
13 * 5.8= 75.4 Amp current can easily turn on the inverter but slight fluctuation can reduce the performance of the PUMP.
Current production in Cloudy days=2.9*13=37.7 Amp
Similarly for 700 watt (7*5.8=40.6 and 20.3 Amp)
20.3 Amp can easily charge a battery .
Considering battery bank would reduce the size of the pumping system:-
2 pairs of 12 volt 150 AH batteries connected in series making 24 v, 150 AH and a charge controller (24 v, 15-20amp) to charge the battery.
12 * 2=24 volt (voltage is doubled in series)
150 *1= 150 Amps (current is increased in parallel).
700 watt solar panel would make almost 40 Amps of current at good climatic condition and 15-17 Amps at extremely worst condition.
v Remember I am using these battery as a power booster to stop the pump from stalling at frequent intervals due to change in weather condition
Since I have considered the maximum water depth level for the crops hereby the chosen pumps could discharge almost 90% water to 1 hectare land and completely irrigate the 0.75 hectares of land in a single day by operating for 6-7 hours.
SPECIFICATION OF PARTS REQUIRED (AS PER THE ABOVE CALCULATION)
MOTOR PUMP: It is the major part of the system which is to be carefully chosen in order to gain maximum efficiency. For most of the irrigation purpose CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS and SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS are used. So, we consider using centrifugal pump.
· Total head specification should be considered(as per BIHAR it is 5-8 meters)
· Discharge rate be 366-420 litres per minute.
Companies like CROMPTON GREAVES, USHA, TAXIMO, CRI PUMPS, SUGUNA PUMPS, ARISE, KIRLOSKAR PUMPS etc. . Offer’s a good range of pumps suitable for different purposes with affordable prices. A good quality 1 HP pump would cost: Rs.10000/-
PREFERED PUMP: DC-5(KIRLOSKAR) 0.75HP Discharge Rate: 16560 at TDH of 9 metre can pump 2000ltrs at 5 metres.
SH SHI SHN-82
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INVERTER: inverter that takes in DC source and produces AC source there is also wave differences for different inverters such as sine wave, square wave etc. but, sine wave is more widely used.
It is clear that a 1 HP pump requires 750 watt for running but during starting it requires maximum power to start and it is sometimes twice its power rating so a range of (700va to 1300va) 3 ph. will be quite suitable to run the pump. The input voltage source for the inverter will be provided by the PV Module.
Companies like CROMPTON GREAVES, LUMINOUS, MICROTEK, SUKAM, and V-GUARD offer good inverters suitable for all purposes and with an affordable price of around RS. Rs.5000-7000/-
PHOTO VOLTAIC MODULE:
As per the WORLD INSTITUTE OF SOLAR ENERGY(WISE) BIHAR receives
280 days of sunlight in a year that coveys their is a moderate sunrays yjroughout the state.
These are life of system to be wisely chosen that decides the amount of power to be generated for the working of control system to power the inverter.According to MNRE, solar panels are having standard price per watt (i.e. Rs.35 –Rs.45pw) of the solar panel, but now they are costing around (Rs.50-Rs.60) per watt .which are further divided into two categories one is mono crystalline (pure silicon) and other is polycrystalline (modified). Monocrystalline is bit costly then polycrystalline.
Ø Higher the power rating of the module higher the efficiency.
Ø Higher the power rating of the module greater the dimension.
Ø Dimension matters but efficiency matters much.
Ø Operating temperature should be based to the geographical area.
Ø Weight also matters.
Ø Choose the solar panels those operate best in worst conditions.
Solars having efficiency rate more than 15% are good to is in any condition because the can produce 50% of their rated power in cloudy days.
Solar cells are very sensitive to the temperature which clears the concept panel about (0.25%) during summer so, they can be cooled to get optimum performance.
These are some of the best companies approved for the purchase of solar panels by MNRE:-
ES 210 M4B
BHEL, WAAREE, TATASOLARPOWER, REIL, PHOTONIX, ORB ENERGY, EMMVEE, KIRTI SOLAR LTD, CONERGY ENERGY SYSTEM, SUNSHINE POWER PRODUCTS AND PLG POWERS.
COST: Rs. 50—60 per watt
These are the smart devices they control the amount of voltage and current produced by the solar to charge the battery as per its rating for efficient charging and increasing the life span of the Battery Cells.
MAXIMUM POWER POIN TRACKER (MPPT) are the newly introduced devices in the solar world for efficient charging in all weather conditions.
EXAMPLE: A solar producing 24 v, 8 amp after feeding into MPPT it reduces to 12-15V , 12 Amp
LINEAR CURRENT BOOSTERS (LCB) are the advanced version of MPPT which can be used to directly power an inverter without using the BATTERIES.
PREFERED COMPANIES: SUNPOWER,BHEL and PLG POWER.
These are the charge storing devices used for backup and constant supply of charge to inverter for smooth running.
Two 12V, 150 AH Batteries are suitable for the 1500VA inverter.
PREFERED COMPANIES: EXIDE, AMARON, MICROTEK etc.
COST: Rs.10000—11000 per battery.
POWERING THE CONTROL SYSTEM:
1. Powering the pump using batteries.
Here battery is charged through solar panel and simultaneously, it is connected to the controller charges the battery. It does not affect the running of pump at variation of sun’s rays falling on the PV module.
· 1000va-1500va inverters range between rs.6000-rs. 8000.
· A pair of 12v, 150AH battery would cost around Rs.20000.
· To charge the battery we need high power photo voltaic modules to charge sooner.
· Advantage: No tripping of the pump takes place during insufficient sun rays and it can also be used as a source of electricity at homes during power cut to light CFL’S , power televisions , charge mobiles and run fans.
· Disadvantage : small in size but heavier than array of solar panels
2. Powering the controller directly through the photovoltaic module.
here array of pv modules connected in series and parallel to each other are connected the voltage controlling circuit which will deliver the required voltage to the inverter to operate but fails when the intensity of the sun ray decreases.
Applicable best when DC motors are used while using AC pumps it is inefficient.
120watt*13=1560 watt (can run 1200va inverter or less)
100watt*12=1200 watt (can run 1000va inverter or less)
Similarly it can run different types of inverter with diff. of PV modules arrangement.
· Price would range between Rs.50000 to Rs.60000 for complete PV array.
· Advantage: Easy to carry less weight as compared to the PV module + battery bank.
· Disadvantage: They work properly during sufficient insolation (solar radiation) and cause tripping off the pump during an insufficient insolation.
Total price without battery bank= 1HP pump(rs.10000) + inverter(1000 va-1500va)(rs.6000-rs.7000) + solar panels(rs.50000 to Rs.60000)+ carriage made up of iron (Rs.6000-Rs.7000) +input voltage controller circuit(Rs.2000) +solar panels mounting deck(approximately Rs. 5000)other required accessories(Rs. 5000)
Total price with battery bank:
1HP pump(rs.10000) + inverter(1000 va-1500va)(rs.6000-rs.7000) + solar panels(rs.30000 to Rs.35000)+batteries 12v ,150AH (Rs.20000) carriage made up of iron (Rs.6000-Rs.7000) +input voltage controller circuit(Rs.2000) +solar panels mounting deck(approximately Rs. 2000)other required accessories(Rs. 5000)
TOTAL PRICE ESTIMATED = Rs. 87000- Rs.90000
CARRIAGE (iron trolley):
Capable of carrying 170-200 kg but our system would weigh less than 130 kg , which is an aid to the mobile irrigation system can be pulled by a single man and also can be carried in the bullock cart.
SOLAR PANNEL MOUNTING RACK (folding)
Racks are the mounting houses of the solar panels they are extremely designed to fix the solar panels into them and hold them in any given angle manually or automatically.
The folding racks are as simple as books they can be opened and closed, that make mobility efficient, which can be carried to different places easily like suitcase or backpacks
1. 10 *100 watt waaree modules total dimension is 11500*6750*35(each having 1150*675*35) in mm.
2. 10*130 watt BHEL L12130 130Watt total dimension is 14950*6650(each having 1495*665) in mm.
These include pipes, screws, nuts, operating instruments cables, wires and designing a MANUAL BOOK IN THE REGIONAL LANGUAGE.
ADVANCE OVERVIEW OF THE SOLAR ENERGY BASED WATER PUMPING SYSTEM CAN BE FURTHER MODIFIED TO A NEW VERSION “EMBEDDED SYSTEM BASED SOLAR ENERGY WATER PUMPING SYSTEM”
Microcontrollers are the fundamental building blocks of the embedded systems they link all our physical activities to the digital world and the members associated along with the microcontroller are called SENSORS .
· SENSORS convey message to the MICROCONTROLLER which operates according to it.
· They require very less amount to operate (3.7v – 9.0 v) with current in milli amperes.
· The feed there output to the RELAYS which act according to the microcontrollers command.
Advantages of embedded system over manual system of solar water pumping system.
· The pumping system which was manually operated through hand can be operated through REMOTE SYSTEM or DTMF MODULE.
· Speed of the motor could be controlled easily with varying RPM of the motor.
· Total incoming power from the solar panels can be displayed through the LCD screen equipped with the microcontroller.
· TIME can be set to switch on, switch off or run the pump for hours and minutes.
· The pump also can be set to run for frequent intervals.
Finally I have completed with all my required details on the view of my idea and as per the opportunity provided by by the GREENPEACE design challenge.
Sources: Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), BREDA, IREDA, BIHAR KRISHI, BHEL, PLG POWERS etc.
14th, Nov 2013 update:
SOLAR PANELS are selected on the basis of solar irradiance figures of particular geographical site.
BIHAR receives moderate sunlight throughout the year as per the survey of WORLD INSTITUTE OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY (WISE) .it covers almost 280 days out of 365 days.
Solar insolation is measured in Kwh/m2/hour or Kwh/m2/Day which literally explains total amount of energy received in Kilo-watt per day at a dimension of 100*100 cm.
The radiation depends upon the air resistance, angle of elevation of the solar panel, climatic factors and season.
The data’s that shows complete information of solar insolation in the state of BIHAR in different seasons as per WISE.
WINTER SEASON (solar is mounted 49 degree towards south.)
Month (radiation in kwh/m2/day)
JAN(5.76) FEB(6.70) MARCH(6.76) APRIL(5.56) MAY(5.56) JUNE(4.54) JULY(3.79) AUG(4.03) SEP(4.31) OCT(5.83) NOV(6.40) DEC(5.92)
SUMMER SEASON (Solar is mounted 79 degree towards South)
Month (radiation in kwh/m2/day)
JAN(4.67) FEB(5.81) MARCH(6.58) APRIL(6.93) MAY(6.76) JUNE(5.58) JULY(4.48) AUG(4.55) SEP(4.49) OCT(5.34) NOV(5.24) DEC(4.65)
OPTIMAL YEAR ROUND (Solar Panels are mounted 64 degree towards south)
Month (radiation in kwh/m2/day)
JAN(5.37) FEB(6.44) MARCH(6.86) APRIL(6.81) MAY(6.32) JUNE(5.17) JULY(4.22) AUG(4.38) SEP(4.51) OCT(5.74) NOV(6.00) DEC(5.44)
ADJUSTED THROUGHOUT THE YEAR (Solar is adjusted across one axis)
Month (radiation in kwh/m2/day)
JAN(5.76) FEB(6.70) MARCH(6.86) APRIL(6.94) MAY(6.76) JUNE(5.71) JULY(4.48) AUG(4.55) SEP(4.51) OCT(5.84) NOV(6.40) DEC (6.06)
As per NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY (NREL) solar radiation in BIHAR:-
Month (radiation in kwh/m2/day)
JAN(4.18) FEB(5.25) MARCH(6.26) APRIL(6.95) MAY(6.90) JUNE(5.74) JULY(4.57) AUG(4.61) SEP(4.43) OCT(4.96) NOV(4.72) DEC (4.07)
Average radiation throughout the year= 5.22 Kwh/m2/day
Considering the least energy radiation the array is assembled
Here 3.79 Kwh/m2/day is the least radiation
(All the data provided above include Air resistance)
3.79 Kwh/m2/day = 3.79*1000=3790 Wh/m2/Day of energy is captured by the earth at dimension of 100*100 cm.
a solar panel of 100*100 Cm2 panel generally ranges between 75-90 watts.
Comparing both 3790 Wh/m2/Day = 90 Watts is very efficient for a solar panel to operate.
A solar panel of dimension 200*100 cm2 can easily operate, receiving almost energy of 3790*2=7580 Wh/m2/day.
Suppose a solar panel requires 500 Wh/m2/day of solar energy to produce 500 watt of electricity and it receives 400 Wh/m2/day then it will generate 400 watts.
If there are any mistakes in calculation above kindly notify me firstname.lastname@example.org.